Nuclear energy differs from other sources of
energy with its military application resting
at the core of international relations, that is,
nuclear weapons. Under the international
nuclear nonproliferation regime, nonnuclear
weapon states have the right to use
nuclear energy for peaceful purposes under
the obligation to apply safeguards, so that
the technology is not diverted to military use.
This article aims to show that in the new
millennium, countries aspiring to generate
nuclear energy need to consider their policy
from a broader context than energy security. It
starts with an overview of nuclear technology
and its relationship to proliferation, how its
use is regulated, and the expected behavior
from states using nuclear energy. It presents
the challenges facing nuclear power projects:
the Iran nuclear issue; nuclear terrorism
becoming a more pressing issue than state-level
proliferation; and safety and public acceptance.