The Afghan wars present a good example of contemporary conflicts, often described as “complex political emergencies” (CPEs). These are the offshoots of diverse factors related to ethno-national, ethno-geographic, ethnoeconomic, ethno-religious and ethno-sectarian manifestations. In order to comprehend these conflicts in entirety, one needs to examine Afghanistan’s historico-cultural and linguistic dynamics, socio-economic structure, religiotribal ideologies, and geo-strategic and geopolitical stereotypes. The aim of the article is to furnish a comprehensive record of the impact on the country’s human capital from the Soviet occupation up to the US invasion. The US invasion in the post-9/11 environment, however, brought no let up to the miseries of the Afghan people. Importantly, the current Afghan conflict embodies horrendous consequences for the country’s survival on the one hand, and regional and global security on the other. The article examines how civilians have increasingly borne the brunt of the US and NATO air war against the Taliban and other insurgent groups.