About five percent of persons born in Turkey, or born to Turkish parents outside Turkey, some four million people, are in the EU-15 countries. Migration was the major relationship between Turkey and Western Europe for most of the past half century. Recent trade and development policies seem to have substituted trade for migration between Turkey and the EU. Turkey is a net immigration country, and net migration between Turkey and Germany has been negative in recent years, meaning that more German residents move to Turkey than Turkish residents to Germany.