The 21st century commenced with an asymmetrical assault of a VNSA (Violent Non-State Actors) against the sovereign power of the U.S., and an asymmetrical backlash against this assault. The characteristics of the Westphalian world order, the Weberian state, as well as the wars that are being conducted and the international actors that engage in them have all begun to change. VNSAs, many of which have become especially visible with the U.S. occupation of Iraq, have gained significance as a new type of geopolitical actor that influences regional and global policies, especially after the Arab Uprisings and the Syrian civil war. In fact, the civil war in Syria has opened the Pandora’s Box for all VNSAs. The growing turmoil, chaos and crisis in the Middle East has caused the rise of various VNSAs to the top of the global political agenda and aroused the interest of intellectual and military circles.
- Perceptions Autumn-Winter 2019
- On Turkey’s Missile Defense Strategy: The Four Faces of the S-400 Deal between Turkey and Russia – Mustafa KİBAROĞLU
- Understanding the Distinguishing Features of Post-Westphalian Diplomacy – Ebru OĞURLU
- Delinking the Migration-Terrorism Nexus: Strategies for the De-Securitization of Migration – Suna Gülfer IHLAMUR-ÖNER