The 21st century commenced with an asymmetrical assault of a VNSA (Violent Non-State Actors) against the sovereign power of the U.S., and an asymmetrical backlash against this assault. The characteristics of the Westphalian world order, the Weberian state, as well as the wars that are being conducted and the international actors that engage in them have all begun to change. VNSAs, many of which have become especially visible with the U.S. occupation of Iraq, have gained significance as a new type of geopolitical actor that influences regional and global policies, especially after the Arab Uprisings and the Syrian civil war. In fact, the civil war in Syria has opened the Pandora’s Box for all VNSAs. The growing turmoil, chaos and crisis in the Middle East has caused the rise of various VNSAs to the top of the global political agenda and aroused the interest of intellectual and military circles.
- Perceptions Spring-Summer 2019
- Introduction: American Foreign Policy in an Era of Transition – Helin SARI ERTEM
- Lost In Translation: A System-Level Analysis of the Turkish-U.S. Alliance under the Obama and Trump Administrations – Helin SARI ERTEM * & Radiye Funda KARADENİZ
- Donald Trump and the Evolving U.S.-Russia Relationship – Andrei KOROBKOV